See (and )
- For the band of the same name, see Europe (band).
Europe is a continent whose boundaries are generally regarded as being: the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Ural Mountains and Ural River (or Emba River) in the east, the Caspian Sea, Caucasus mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and Black Sea in the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Together with Asia, Europe forms the supercontinent Eurasia, of which Europe is the western fifth.
Table of contents
The term Europe is often said to derive from Greek words meaning broad (eurys) and face (ops). Many, however, see a Semitic origin, pointing to the Semitic word ereb which means "sunset". From a Middle Eastern viewpoint, the sun sets over Europe: the lands to the west.
HistoryMain article: History of Europe
Europe has a long history of great cultural and economic achievement, starting as far back as the Bronze Age. The origin of Western culture is generally attributed to the ancient Greeks, and the Roman Empire spanned the entire continent for many centuries. Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of stasis, referred to by enlightenment thinkers as the Dark Ages and by most modern historians, the Middle Ages. During this time isolated monastic communities in Ireland and elsewhere carefully safeguarded and compiled knowledge accumulated previously. The Dark Ages came to an end with the Renaissance and the New Monarchs, marking the start of a period of discovery, exploration, and increase in scientific knowledge. From the 15th century European nations, particularly Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Britain, built large colonial empires, with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. The Industrial Revolution started in Europe in the 18th century, leading to much greater general prosperity and a corresponding increase in population. After World War II, and until the end of the Cold War, Europe was divided into two major political and economic blocks: Communist nations in Eastern Europe and capitalistic countries in Western Europe. Around 1990 the Eastern block broke up.
Geography and Extent
Geographically Europe is a part of the larger landmass known as Eurasia. The continent begins at the Ural Mountains in Russia, which defines Europe's eastern boundary with Asia. The boundary with Asia continues along the Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains to the south.
In practice the borders of Europe are often drawn with greater regard to political, economic, and other cultural considerations. This has led to there being several different "Europes" that are not always identical in size, including or excluding countries according to the definition of "Europe" used.
The idea of a European "continent" is not universally held. Some non-European geographical texts refer to a Eurasian Continent, or to a European "sub-continent", given that "Europe" is not surrounded by sea and is, in any case, much more a cultural than a geographically definable area. In the past concepts such as "Christendom" were deemed more important.
Increasingly, the word "Europe" is being used as a synonym for the European Union (EU) and its member states. 25 European states currently belong to the EU. A number of other European states are negotiating for membership and several more are expected to begin negotiations in the future. Almost all European states are members of the Council of Europe, the exceptions being Belarus, the Holy See (Vatican City), Kazakhstan, and Monaco.
Independent CountriesEurope comprises the following independent countries (in alphabetical order):* Albania* Andorra* Armenia1* Austria* Azerbaijan2* Belarus* Belgium* Bosnia and Herzegovina* Bulgaria* Croatia* Czech Republic* Cyprus1* Denmark* Estonia* Finland* France* Georgia2* Germany* Greece* Hungary* Iceland* Ireland* Italy* Kazakhstan3* Latvia* Liechtenstein* Lithuania* Luxembourg* Macedonia* Malta* Moldova* Monaco* Netherlands* Norway* Poland* Portugal* Romania* Russia4* San Marino* Serbia and Montenegro* Slovakia* Slovenia* Spain* Sweden* Switzerland* Turkey5* Ukraine* United Kingdom* Vatican City
Notes1 This country is geographically in Asia, but it is considered a part of Europe for cultural and historical reasons.
2 This country lies partly in Europe according to definitions which consider the main watershed of the Caucasus as the boundary with Asia.
3 Kazakhstan's European territory consists of a portion west of the Ural River.
4 Those territories of Russia lying west of the Ural Mountains are considered as part of Europe.
5 European Turkey comprises territory to the west and north of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles straits.
The territories listed below are recognised as being culturally and geographically defined. Most have a degree of autonomy. In brackets is the state which administers the territory.
- Faroe Islands (Denmark)
- Gibraltar (UK)
- Guernsey (UK)
- Jan Mayen (Norway)
- Jersey (UK)
- Isle of Man (UK)
- Svalbard (Norway)
Regions in Europe
- Western Europe (Red)
- Central Europe (Blue)
- Eastern Europe (see Northern Eurasia) (Brown)
- Northern Europe (see Scandinavia) (Purple)
- Nordic Countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark
- Southern Europe (Green)
- History of Europe
- Transportation in Europe
- Financial and social rankings of European countries
- Area and population of European countries
- Date of independence of European countries
- Metropolitian cities of Europe
- Alternative names of European cities
- European Union